Ja det gjorde jo nazisterne – vil de fleste jo sige.
Og det troede jeg faktisk også selv, indtil jeg for nogle år siden begyndte at læse bogen: ‘Moskva 1941. En by i krig’ af Rodric Braithwaite. Udgivet på Cappelen Damm 2008.
Heri kan man læse følgende:
“I de sidste fire år før krigen blev over 32.000 mennesker dræbt af det hemmelige politi i Moskva og omegn. De omfattede fem tidligere ledere for byen Moskvas parti, to tidligere ledere for for Moskvas byråd og 30 partisekretærer af lavere grad. Til at begynde med tog man sig af ligene inde i byen. Da pladsen slap op for NKVD, satte de to særskilte ‘begravelses-zoner’ op udenfor byen. Udefra så de ud som hærens skydebaner af hensyn til nysgerrige blandt lokalbefolkningen. En af dem lå på et stutteri i landsbyen Butovo. Her blev næsten 21.000 mennesker dræbt i 1937 0g 1938, deriblandt præster, arbejdere, småbønder, franskmænd, amerikanere, italienere, kinesere, japanere – folk af mere end 60 nationaliteter. Nogen blev skudt. Andre blev gasset i de specialombyggede lastbiler, som fragtede dem ud af byen. Butovo er nu en voksende soveby af en forstad udenfor Moskva, og de fleste af indbyggerne hverken ved eller bryder sig særlig meget om, hvad der skete for 70 år siden.”
Som kilder til ovennævnte oplysninger opgiver bogen:
1) Meget af stoffet er indsamlet af Mindesamfundet i Moskva. Netside: http://www.memo.ru/memory/communarka/
2) T. Colton: Moscow: Governing the Socialist Metropolis (London 1995) s 288-291.
3) BBCs dokumentarprogram ‘Gulag’ (2000) omfatter øjenvidneskildringer af drabene i Butovo-zonen.
Gasset i specialbyggede lastbiler.SS begyndte ikke på at gasse jøder i lastbiler før sent i 1941 eller begyndesen af 1942, så sovjets kommunister kom nazisterne 4-5 år i forkøbet. Måske var det ovenikøbet kommunister, der lærte Eichmann og kumpaner tricket?
Fra: Moscow: Governing the Socialist Metropolis Af Timothy J. Colton
Et andet likvideringssted i Moskva var Kommunarka.
During the Great Purge in the Soviet Union, an NKVD officer Isaj D. Berg used a specially adapted airtight van for gassing prisoners to death on an experimental basis. The prisoner were gassed on the way to Butovo, a phony firing range, where the NKVD executed its prisoners and buried them. According to testimony given by NKVD officer Nikolai Kharitonov in 1956, Isai Berg had been instrumental in the production of gas vans. Berg had become chief of the administrative economic department in Moscow’s NKVD in the summer of 1937. In October 1937 he was charged with the supervision of the Butovo firing range. Berg had to prepare Butovo for the mass execution of people from greater Moscow and to ensure that these executions would take place smoothly. According to testimony given by Fjodor Tschesnokov, a member of Berg’s execution team, in 1956, trucks were used, which were equipped with valves through which the gas could be directed inside the vehicles. The interrogations revealed that the prisoners were stripped naked, tied up, gagged and thrown into the trucks. Their property was stolen. Berg was arrested on 3 August 1938. sentenced to death for participating in a “counter-revolutionary conspiracy within the NKVD” and executed on 3 March 1939.
The scale at which these trucks were used is unknown. Author Tomas Kizny assumes that they were in use while Berg oversaw the executions (October 1937 to 4 August 1938). He points to archaeological excavations conducted in 1997. Then 59 corpses were exhumed who most likely had been killed during Berg’s tenure. Only four of these victims had been shot in the head, which leads Kizny to conclude that at least some of them had been gassed.
Journalist Yevgenia Albats maintains that gas vans were a “Soviet invention”. Kizny names Berg as the “inventor”. Historians of the Holocaust like Henry Friedlander argue that the mobile gas chambers were invented in 1940. Katrin Reichelt names Albert Widmann and Arthur Nebe as the two, who together developed the method by which human beings were killed in vans by exhaust fumes. The vans themselves were modified by Walter Rauff, Friedrich Pradel and Harry Wentritt. Matthias Beer calls gas vans “a special product of the Third Reich”. Robert Gellately points out that during an euthanasia program in occupied Poland the Nazi killers sought a more efficient and secretive killing process and thus “invented the first gas van, which began operations in the Warthegau on January 15, 1940, under Herbert Lange”. He also notes, that “the Soviets sometimes used a gas van (dushegubka), as in Moscow during the 1930s, but how extensive that was needs further investigation. They used crematoriums to dispose of thousands of bodies but had no gas chambers.”